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Malcolm Gladwell Essay

"Gladwell" redirects here. For the surname, see Gladwell (surname).

Malcolm Timothy GladwellCM (born September 3, 1963) is an English-born Canadian journalist, author, and speaker.[1] He has been a staff writer for The New Yorker since 1996. He has written five books, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (2000), Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (2005), Outliers: The Story of Success (2008), What the Dog Saw: And Other Adventures (2009), a collection of his journalism, and David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants (2013). All five books were on The New York Times Best Seller list. He is also the host of the podcast Revisionist History.

Gladwell's books and articles often deal with the unexpected implications of research in the social sciences and make frequent and extended use of academic work, particularly in the areas of sociology, psychology, and social psychology. Gladwell was appointed to the Order of Canada on June 30, 2011.[2]

Early life[edit]

Gladwell was born in Fareham, Hampshire, England. His mother is Joyce (née Nation) Gladwell, a Jamaican-bornpsychotherapist. His father, Graham Gladwell, was a mathematics professor from Kent, England.[3][4][5] They resided in rural Canada throughout Malcolm's early life.[6]

Gladwell has said that his mother is his role model as a writer.[7] When he was six his family moved from Southampton to Elmira, Ontario, Canada.[3]

Gladwell's father noted Malcolm was an unusually single-minded and ambitious boy.[8] When Malcolm was 11, his father, who was a Professor[9] of Mathematics and Engineering at the University of Waterloo, allowed him to wander around the offices at his university, which stoked the boy's interest in reading and libraries.[10] During his high school years, Gladwell was a middle-distance runner and won the 14-year-old boys' 1500 metres title at the 1978 Ontario High School Championships in Kingston, Ontario, with a time of 4:05.20. In the spring of 1982, Gladwell interned with the National Journalism Center in Washington, D.C.[11] He graduated with a degree in History from the University of Toronto, Trinity College, Toronto, in 1984.[12]

Career[edit]

Gladwell's grades were not high enough for graduate school (as Gladwell puts it, "college was not an... intellectually fruitful time for me"), so he decided to pursue advertising as a career.[10][13] After being rejected by every advertising agency he applied to, he accepted a journalism position at The American Spectator and moved to Indiana.[14] He subsequently wrote for Insight on the News, a conservative magazine owned by Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church.[15] In 1987, Gladwell began covering business and science for The Washington Post, where he worked until 1996.[16] In a personal elucidation of the 10,000-hour rule he popularized in Outliers, Gladwell notes, "I was a basket case at the beginning, and I felt like an expert at the end. It took 10 years—exactly that long."[10]

When Gladwell started at The New Yorker in 1996 he wanted to "mine current academic research for insights, theories, direction, or inspiration".[8] His first assignment was to write a piece about fashion. Instead of writing about high-class fashion, Gladwell opted to write a piece about a man who manufactured T-shirts, saying: "it was much more interesting to write a piece about someone who made a T-shirt for $8 than it was to write about a dress that costs $100,000. I mean, you or I could make a dress for $100,000, but to make a T-shirt for $8 – that's much tougher."[8]

Gladwell gained popularity with two New Yorker articles, both written in 1996: "The Tipping Point" and "The Coolhunt"[17][18] These two pieces would become the basis for Gladwell's first book, The Tipping Point, for which he received a $1 million advance.[13][18] He continues to write for The New Yorker. In July 2015 he was the subject of a reprise of several of his articles in a New Yorker newsletter by Henry Finder.[19] Gladwell also served as a contributing editor for Grantland, a sports journalism website founded by former ESPN columnist Bill Simmons.

In a July 2002 article in The New Yorker Gladwell introduced the concept of "The Talent Myth" that companies and organizations, supposedly, incorrectly follow.[20] This work examines different managerial and administrative techniques that companies, both winners and losers, have used. He states that the misconception seems to be that management and executives are all too ready to classify employees without ample performance records and thus make hasty decisions. Many companies believe in disproportionately rewarding "stars" over other employees with bonuses and promotions. However with the quick rise of inexperienced workers with little in-depth performance review, promotions are often incorrectly made, putting employees into positions they should not have and keeping other more experienced employees from rising. He also points out that under this system, narcissistic personality types are more likely to climb the ladder, since they are more likely to take more credit for achievements and take less blame for failure.[20] He states both that narcissists make the worst managers and that the system of rewarding "stars" eventually worsens a company's position. Gladwell states that the most successful long-term companies are those who reward experience above all else and require greater time for promotions.[20]

Works[edit]

Gladwell has written five books. When asked for the process behind his writing, he said: "I have two parallel things I'm interested in. One is, I'm interested in collecting interesting stories, and the other is I'm interested in collecting interesting research. What I'm looking for is cases where they overlap".[21]

The Tipping Point[edit]

Main article: The Tipping Point

The initial inspiration for his first book, The Tipping Point, which was published in 2000, came from the sudden drop of crime in New York City. He wanted the book to have a broader appeal than just crime, however, and sought to explain similar phenomena through the lens of epidemiology. While Gladwell was a reporter for The Washington Post, he covered the AIDS epidemic. He began to take note of "how strange epidemics were", saying epidemiologists have a "strikingly different way of looking at the world". The term "tipping point" comes from the moment in an epidemic when the virus reaches critical mass and begins to spread at a much higher rate.[citation needed] This claim that the idea came from epidemiology has been critically challenged.[22]

Gladwell's theories of crime were heavily influenced by the "broken windows theory" of policing, and Gladwell is credited for packaging and popularizing the theory in a way that was implementable in New York City. Gladwell's theoretical implementation bears a striking resemblance to the "stop-and-frisk" policies of the NYPD.[23] However, in the decade and a half since its publication, The Tipping Point and Gladwell have both come under fire for the tenuous link between "broken windows" and New York City's drop in violent crime. During a 2013 interview with BBC journalist Jon Ronson for The Culture Show, Gladwell admitted that he was "too in love with the broken-windows notion". He went on to say that he was "so enamored by the metaphorical simplicity of that idea that I overstated its importance".[24]

Blink[edit]

Main article: Blink (book)

After The Tipping Point, Gladwell published Blink in 2005. The book explains how the human unconscious interprets events or cues and how past experiences can lead people to make informed decisions very rapidly, using examples like the Getty kouros and psychologist John Gottman's research on the likelihood of divorce in married couples. Gladwell's hair was the inspiration for Blink. He stated that once he allowed his hair to get longer, he started to get speeding tickets all the time, an oddity considering that he had never gotten one before, and that he started getting pulled out of airport security lines for special attention.[25] In a particular incident, he was accosted by three police officers while walking in downtown Manhattan, because his curly hair matched the profile of a rapist, despite the fact that the suspect looked nothing like him otherwise.[citation needed]

Gladwell's books The Tipping Point (2000) and Blink (2005), were international bestsellers. The Tipping Point sold more than two million copies in the United States. Blink sold equally well.[13][26] As of November 2008, the two books had sold a combined 4.5 million copies.[27]

Outliers[edit]

Main article: Outliers (book)

Gladwell's third book, Outliers, published in 2008, examines how a person's environment, in conjunction with personal drive and motivation, affects his or her possibility and opportunity for success. Gladwell's original question revolved around lawyers: "We take it for granted that there's this guy in New York who's the corporate lawyer, right? I just was curious: Why is it all the same guy?", referring to the fact that "a surprising number of the most powerful and successful corporate lawyers in New York City have almost the exact same biography".[28][10] In another example given in the book, Gladwell noticed that people ascribe Bill Gates's success to being "really smart" or "really ambitious". He noted that he knew a lot of people who are really smart and really ambitious, but not worth 60 billion dollars. "It struck me that our understanding of success was really crude — and there was an opportunity to dig down and come up with a better set of explanations."

What the Dog Saw: And Other Adventures[edit]

Main article: What the Dog Saw: And Other Adventures

Gladwell's fourth book, What the Dog Saw: And Other Adventures, was published on October 20, 2009. What the Dog Saw bundles together Gladwell's favourite articles from The New Yorker since he joined the magazine as a staff writer in 1996.[14] The stories share a common theme, namely that Gladwell tries to show us the world through the eyes of others, even if that other happens to be a dog.[29][30]

David and Goliath[edit]

Main article: David and Goliath (book)

Gladwell's fifth book, David and Goliath, was released in October 2013, and it examines the struggle of underdogs versus favorites. The book is partially inspired by an article Gladwell wrote for The New Yorker in 2009 entitled "How David Beats Goliath".[31] The book was a bestseller but received mixed reviews.[32][33][34][35]

Reception[edit]

The Tipping Point was named as one of the best books of the decade by Amazon.com customers, The A.V. Club, The Guardian, and The Times.[36][37][38][39] It was also Barnes & Noble's fifth bestselling nonfiction book of the decade.[40]Blink was named to Fast Company's list of the best business books of 2005.[41] It was also number 5 on Amazon customers' favourite books of 2005, named to The Christian Science Monitor's best nonfiction books of 2005, and in the top 50 of Amazon customers' favourite books of the decade.[36][42][43]Outliers was a number 1 New York Times bestseller for 11 straight weeks and was Time's number 10 nonfiction book of 2008 as well as named to the San Francisco Chronicle's list of the 50 best nonfiction books of 2008.[44][45][46]

Fortune described The Tipping Point as "a fascinating book that makes you see the world in a different way".[47][48] The Daily Telegraph called it "a wonderfully offbeat study of that little-understood phenomenon, the social epidemic".[49]

Reviewing Blink, The Baltimore Sun dubbed Gladwell "the most original American [sic] journalist since the young Tom Wolfe".[50] Farhad Manjoo at Salon described the book as "a real pleasure. As in the best of Gladwell's work, Blink brims with surprising insights about our world and ourselves."[51]The Economist called Outliers "a compelling read with an important message".[52]David Leonhardt wrote in The New York Times Book Review: "In the vast world of nonfiction writing, Malcolm Gladwell is as close to a singular talent as exists today" and Outliers "leaves you mulling over its inventive theories for days afterward".[53] Ian Sample wrote in The Guardian: "Brought together, the pieces form a dazzling record of Gladwell's art. There is depth to his research and clarity in his arguments, but it is the breadth of subjects he applies himself to that is truly impressive."[14][54]

Gladwell's critics have described him as prone to oversimplification. The New Republic called the final chapter of Outliers, "impervious to all forms of critical thinking" and said Gladwell believes "a perfect anecdote proves a fatuous rule".[55] Gladwell has also been criticized for his emphasis on anecdotal evidence over research to support his conclusions.[56] Maureen Tkacik and Steven Pinker have challenged the integrity of Gladwell's approach.[57][58] Even while praising Gladwell's writing style and content, Pinker summed up Gladwell as "a minor genius who unwittingly demonstrates the hazards of statistical reasoning", while accusing him of "cherry-picked anecdotes, post-hoc sophistry and false dichotomies" in his book Outliers. Referencing a Gladwell reporting mistake in which Gladwell refers to "eigenvalue" as "Igon Value", Pinker criticizes his lack of expertise: "I will call this the Igon Value Problem: when a writer's education on a topic consists in interviewing an expert, he is apt to offer generalizations that are banal, obtuse or flat wrong."[58][n 1] A writer in The Independent accused Gladwell of posing "obvious" insights.[59]The Register has accused Gladwell of making arguments by weak analogy and commented Gladwell has an "aversion for fact", adding: "Gladwell has made a career out of handing simple, vacuous truths to people and dressing them up with flowery language and an impressionistic take on the scientific method."[60] In that regard, The New Republic has called him "America's Best-Paid Fairy-Tale Writer".[61] His approach was satirized by the online site "The Malcolm Gladwell Book Generator".[62]

In 2005, Gladwell commanded a $45,000 speaking fee.[63] In 2008, he was making "about 30 speeches a year—most for tens of thousands of dollars, some for free", according to a profile in New York magazine.[64] In 2011, he gave three talks to groups of small businessmen as part of a three-city speaking tour put on by Bank of America. The program was titled, "Bank of America Small Business Speaker Series: A Conversation with Malcolm Gladwell".[65] Paul Starobin, writing in the Columbia Journalism Review, said the engagement's "entire point seemed to be to forge a public link between a tarnished brand (the bank), and a winning one (a journalist often described in profiles as the epitome of cool)".[66] An article by Melissa Bell of The Washington Post posed the question: "Malcolm Gladwell: Bank of America's new spokesman?"[67]Mother Jones editor Clara Jeffrey said Gladwell's job for Bank of America had "terrible ethical optics". However, Gladwell says he was unaware Bank of America was "bragging about his speaking engagements" until the Atlantic Wire emailed him. Gladwell explained:

I did a talk about innovation for a group of entrepreneurs in Los Angeles a while back, sponsored by Bank of America. They liked the talk, and asked me to give the same talk at two more small business events—in Dallas and yesterday in D.C. That's the extent of it. No different from any other speaking gig. I haven't been asked to do anything else and imagine that's it.[68]

In 2012, CBS's 60 Minutes attributed the recent trend of American parents "redshirting" their five-year-olds (postponing entrance) to give them an advantage in kindergarten to a section in Gladwell's Outliers.[69]

Sociology professor Shayne Lee referenced Outliers in a CNN editorial commemorating Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday. Lee discussed the strategic timing of King's ascent from a "Gladwellian perspective".[70] Gladwell gives credit to Richard Nisbett and Lee Ross for "invent[ing the Gladwellian] genre".[71]

Gladwell has provided blurbs for "scores of book covers", leading The New York Times to ask, "Is it possible that Mr. Gladwell has been spreading the love a bit too thinly?" Gladwell, who said he did not know how many blurbs he had written, acknowledged, "The more blurbs you give, the lower the value of the blurb. It's the tragedy of the commons."[72]

Personal life[edit]

Gladwell describes himself as a Christian.[73] His family attended Above Bar Church in Southampton, UK, and later Gale Presbyterian in Elmira when they moved to Canada. Gladwell wandered away from his Christian roots when he moved to New York, only to rediscover his faith during the writing of David and Goliath and his encounter with Wilma Derksen regarding the death of her child.[74] Gladwell is unmarried and has no children.[75]

Awards and honors[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Books[edit]

Essays and reporting[edit]

  • Gladwell, Malcolm (February 13, 2006). "Million-Dollar Murray: why problems like homelessness may be easier to solve than to manage". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2015. 
  • — (October 20, 2008). "Late Bloomers". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 4, 2016. 
  • — (October 4, 2010). "Small Change". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 8, 2014. 
  • — (November 14, 2011). "The Tweaker". Annals of Technology. The New Yorker. 87 (36): 32–35. Retrieved April 23, 2014. 
  • — (July 28, 2014). "Trust No One: Kim Philby and the hazards of mistrust". The Critics. A Critic at Large. The New Yorker. 90 (21): 70–75. Retrieved September 30, 2014. [permanent dead link] Includes review of MacIntyre, Ben (2014). A Spy Among Friends: Kim Philby and the Great Betrayal. Crown. ISBN 0-80413663-7. 
  • — (May 4, 2015). "The engineer's lament: two ways of thinking about automotive safety". Dept. of Transportation. The New Yorker. 91 (11): 46–55. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
  • — (December 19–26, 2016). "The outside man : what's the difference between Daniel Ellsberg and Edward Snowden?". The Critics. A Critic at Large. The New Yorker. 92 (42): 119–125. [78]

Podcasts[edit]

Book reviews[edit]

Filmography[edit]

Other appearances[edit]

Gladwell is a featured storyteller for the Moth Podcast. He tells a funny yet unfortunate story about how "a well-intentioned wedding toast goes horribly awry for a young man and his friends."[79] Gladwell has launched a new podcast, Revisionist History along with Panoply, the podcast network of The Slate Group.[80] Gladwell is depicted in an episode of the Simpsons (S23 E6 "The Book Job"). As Lisa Simpson is walking through a book fair, she passes a table with a Simpsons version of Gladwell promoting a book, "Cocktail Party Make-You-Thinks."

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Colville, Robert (December 17, 2008). "Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell – review". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  2. ^"Governor General Announces 50 New Appointments to the Order of Canada", The Governor General of Canada, June 30, 2011.
  3. ^ abAdams, Tim (November 16, 2008). "The man who can't stop thinking". The Guardian. London, UK. 
  4. ^Gates, Jr, Henry Louis (2010). Faces of America: How 12 Extraordinary People Discovered Their Pasts. NYU Press. p. 178. ISBN 0-8147-3264-X. 
  5. ^"GLADWELL, Graham". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. March 18, 2017. 
  6. ^"washingtonpost.com: Middle Ground". www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2017-11-30. 
  7. ^"A conversation with Malcolm Gladwell". Charlie Rose. December 19, 2008. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  8. ^ abcPreston, John. Malcolm Gladwell Interview. The Telegraph. October 26, 2009.
  9. ^"Dr. Graham M. L. Gladwell profile". Archived from the original on December 4, 2011. 
  10. ^ abcdGrossman, Lev. "Outliers: Malcolm Gladwell's Success Story", Time, November 18, 2008. Archived September 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^"Books and Articles by NJC Alumni". Young America's Foundation. Archived from the original on November 2, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2009. 
  12. ^"Biography: Malcolm Gladwell (journalist)". Faces of America, with Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Public Broadcasting System. 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  13. ^ abcDonadio, Rachel (February 5, 2006). "The Gladwell Effect". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  14. ^ abcSample, Ian (October 17, 2009). "What the Dog Saw by Malcolm Gladwell". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved October 27, 2009. 
  15. ^Shafer, Jack (March 19, 2008). "The Fibbing Point". Slate. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  16. ^Malcolm Gladwell will be The Cooper Union's 152nd Commencement Speaker. The Cooper Union. March 22, 2011. Archived August 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^"The Coolhunt", gladwell.com; accessed January 17, 2016.
  18. ^ abMcNett, Gavin (March 17, 2000). "Idea epidemics". Salon.com. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  19. ^Finder, Henry, "Malcolm Gladwell", Newsletter to subscribers, The New Yorker, July 26, 2015.
  20. ^ abcGladwell, Malcolm (Jul 22, 2002). "The Talent Myth". The New Yorker. 
  21. ^Jaffe, Eric. "Malcolm in the Middle", psychologicalscience.org, March 2006.
  22. ^Ladimeji, Dapo (March 2015). ""Racism and homophobia in Gladwell's Tipping Point: Revisiting Malcolm Gladwell's 'The Tipping Point'" (review)". Retrieved September 1, 2016. 
  23. ^Nuwer, Rachel (February 6, 2013). "Sorry, Malcolm Gladwell: NYC's Drop in Crime Not Due to Broken Window Theory". The Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved April 10, 2015. 
  24. ^Ronson, Jon (2015). So You've Been Publicly Shamed. Pan MacMillan. pp. 160–162. ISBN 978-1-59448-713-2. 
  25. ^Davis, Johnny. "Malcolm Gladwell: A good hair day", The Independent, March 19, 2006.
  26. ^Booth, Jenny (June 2009). "Gladwell: I was an outsider many times over". Times Online. (subscription required)
  27. ^Lev Grossman (November 13, 2008). "Outliers: Malcolm Gladwell's Success Story". Time. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012. 
  28. ^"Q and A with Malcolm", Gladwell.com.
  29. ^Pinker, Steven (November 7, 2009). "Book Review - 'What the Dog Saw - And Other Adventures', by Malcolm Gladwell". The New York Times. 
  30. ^Reynolds, Susan Salter, "'What the Dog Saw: And Other Adventures' by Malcolm Gladwell – The New Yorker writer's sense of curiosity burns bright in this collection of essays", Los Angeles Times, November 22, 2009.
  31. ^"Malcolm Gladwell's book about underdogs". Cbc.ca. July 11, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2013. 
  32. ^Maslin, Janet. "Finding Talking Points Among the Underdogs", The New York Times, October 2, 2013.
  33. ^Kellaway, Lucy. "'David and Goliath' by Malcolm Gladwell". Financial Times. (subscription required)
  34. ^Junod, Tom. "Malcolm Gladwell Runs Out of Tricks", Esquire, November 25, 2013.
  35. ^Seligman, Craig (September 29, 2013). "Gladwell Tells Us Stuff Only Dummies Don't Know: Books". Bloomberg. (subscription required)
  36. ^ abBest of the Decade... So Far: Top 50 Customers' Favorites. Amazon.com.
  37. ^"The best books of the '00s", The A.V. Club, November 25, 2009.
  38. ^"What we were reading", The Guardian, December 5, 2009.
  39. ^The 100 Best Books of the Decade. The Times, November 14, 2009.
  40. ^Bestsellers of the Decade--Nonfiction. Barnes & Noble.
  41. ^Fast Company's Best Books of 2005. Fast Company. January 5, 2008.
  42. ^Best nonfiction of 2005. The Christian Science Monitor. November 29, 2005.
  43. ^Best Books of 2005. Amazon.com.
  44. ^Hardcover Nonfiction Bestsellers, The New York Times, February 15, 2009.
  45. ^Grossman, Lev. "The Top 10 of Everything 2008". Time, November 3, 2008. Archived October 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  46. ^The 50 best nonfiction books of 2008. San Francisco Chronicle. December 21, 2008.
  47. ^Kelly, Erin (March 6, 2000). "Bookshelf". Fortune. Retrieved December 28, 2010. 
  48. ^Hawthorne, Christopher (March 5, 2000). "The Massive Outbreak of an Idea". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 28, 2010. 
  49. ^Thompson, Damian (May 9, 2000). "Are You a maven or a connector?". Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved December 28, 2010. 
  50. ^Fuson, Ken (January 16, 2005). "The Bright Stuff". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved December 28, 2010. 
  51. ^Manjoo, Farhad (January 13, 2005). "Before you can say". Salon. Retrieved December 28, 2010.

At four-thirty in the afternoon on Monday, February 1, 1960, four college students sat down at the lunch counter at the Woolworth’s in downtown Greensboro, North Carolina. They were freshmen at North Carolina A. & T., a black college a mile or so away.

“I’d like a cup of coffee, please,” one of the four, Ezell Blair, said to the waitress.

“We don’t serve Negroes here,” she replied.

The Woolworth’s lunch counter was a long L-shaped bar that could seat sixty-six people, with a standup snack bar at one end. The seats were for whites. The snack bar was for blacks. Another employee, a black woman who worked at the steam table, approached the students and tried to warn them away. “You’re acting stupid, ignorant!” she said. They didn’t move. Around five-thirty, the front doors to the store were locked. The four still didn’t move. Finally, they left by a side door. Outside, a small crowd had gathered, including a photographer from the Greensboro Record. “I’ll be back tomorrow with A. & T. College,” one of the students said.

By next morning, the protest had grown to twenty-seven men and four women, most from the same dormitory as the original four. The men were dressed in suits and ties. The students had brought their schoolwork, and studied as they sat at the counter. On Wednesday, students from Greensboro’s “Negro” secondary school, Dudley High, joined in, and the number of protesters swelled to eighty. By Thursday, the protesters numbered three hundred, including three white women, from the Greensboro campus of the University of North Carolina. By Saturday, the sit-in had reached six hundred. People spilled out onto the street. White teen-agers waved Confederate flags. Someone threw a firecracker. At noon, the A. & T. football team arrived. “Here comes the wrecking crew,” one of the white students shouted.*

By the following Monday, sit-ins had spread to Winston-Salem, twenty-five miles away, and Durham, fifty miles away. The day after that, students at Fayetteville State Teachers College and at Johnson C. Smith College, in Charlotte, joined in, followed on Wednesday by students at St. Augustine’s College and Shaw University, in Raleigh. On Thursday and Friday, the protest crossed state lines, surfacing in Hampton and Portsmouth, Virginia, in Rock Hill, South Carolina, and in Chattanooga, Tennessee. By the end of the month, there were sit-ins throughout the South, as far west as Texas. “I asked every student I met what the first day of the sitdowns had been like on his campus,” the political theorist Michael Walzer wrote in Dissent. “The answer was always the same: ‘It was like a fever. Everyone wanted to go.’ ” Some seventy thousand students eventually took part. Thousands were arrested and untold thousands more radicalized. These events in the early sixties became a civil-rights war that engulfed the South for the rest of the decade—and it happened without e-mail, texting, Facebook, or Twitter.

The world, we are told, is in the midst of a revolution. The new tools of social media have reinvented social activism. With Facebook and Twitter and the like, the traditional relationship between political authority and popular will has been upended, making it easier for the powerless to collaborate, coördinate, and give voice to their concerns. When ten thousand protesters took to the streets in Moldova in the spring of 2009 to protest against their country’s Communist government, the action was dubbed the Twitter Revolution, because of the means by which the demonstrators had been brought together. A few months after that, when student protests rocked Tehran, the State Department took the unusual step of asking Twitter to suspend scheduled maintenance of its Web site, because the Administration didn’t want such a critical organizing tool out of service at the height of the demonstrations. “Without Twitter the people of Iran would not have felt empowered and confident to stand up for freedom and democracy,” Mark Pfeifle, a former national-security adviser, later wrote, calling for Twitter to be nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Where activists were once defined by their causes, they are now defined by their tools. Facebook warriors go online to push for change. “You are the best hope for us all,” James K. Glassman, a former senior State Department official, told a crowd of cyber activists at a recent conference sponsored by Facebook, A. T. & T., Howcast, MTV, and Google. Sites like Facebook, Glassman said, “give the U.S. a significant competitive advantage over terrorists. Some time ago, I said that Al Qaeda was ‘eating our lunch on the Internet.’ That is no longer the case. Al Qaeda is stuck in Web 1.0. The Internet is now about interactivity and conversation.”

These are strong, and puzzling, claims. Why does it matter who is eating whose lunch on the Internet? Are people who log on to their Facebook page really the best hope for us all? As for Moldova’s so-called Twitter Revolution, Evgeny Morozov, a scholar at Stanford who has been the most persistent of digital evangelism’s critics, points out that Twitter had scant internal significance in Moldova, a country where very few Twitter accounts exist. Nor does it seem to have been a revolution, not least because the protests—as Anne Applebaum suggested in the Washington Post—may well have been a bit of stagecraft cooked up by the government. (In a country paranoid about Romanian revanchism, the protesters flew a Romanian flag over the Parliament building.) In the Iranian case, meanwhile, the people tweeting about the demonstrations were almost all in the West. “It is time to get Twitter’s role in the events in Iran right,” Golnaz Esfandiari wrote, this past summer, in Foreign Policy. “Simply put: There was no Twitter Revolution inside Iran.” The cadre of prominent bloggers, like Andrew Sullivan, who championed the role of social media in Iran, Esfandiari continued, misunderstood the situation. “Western journalists who couldn’t reach—or didn’t bother reaching?—people on the ground in Iran simply scrolled through the English-language tweets post with tag #iranelection,” she wrote. “Through it all, no one seemed to wonder why people trying to coordinate protests in Iran would be writing in any language other than Farsi.”

Some of this grandiosity is to be expected. Innovators tend to be solipsists. They often want to cram every stray fact and experience into their new model. As the historian Robert Darnton has written, “The marvels of communication technology in the present have produced a false consciousness about the past—even a sense that communication has no history, or had nothing of importance to consider before the days of television and the Internet.” But there is something else at work here, in the outsized enthusiasm for social media. Fifty years after one of the most extraordinary episodes of social upheaval in American history, we seem to have forgotten what activism is.

Greensboro in the early nineteen-sixties was the kind of place where racial insubordination was routinely met with violence. The four students who first sat down at the lunch counter were terrified. “I suppose if anyone had come up behind me and yelled ‘Boo,’ I think I would have fallen off my seat,” one of them said later. On the first day, the store manager notified the police chief, who immediately sent two officers to the store. On the third day, a gang of white toughs showed up at the lunch counter and stood ostentatiously behind the protesters, ominously muttering epithets such as “burr-head nigger.” A local Ku Klux Klan leader made an appearance. On Saturday, as tensions grew, someone called in a bomb threat, and the entire store had to be evacuated.

The dangers were even clearer in the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project of 1964, another of the sentinel campaigns of the civil-rights movement. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee recruited hundreds of Northern, largely white unpaid volunteers to run Freedom Schools, register black voters, and raise civil-rights awareness in the Deep South. “No one should go anywhere alone, but certainly not in an automobile and certainly not at night,” they were instructed. Within days of arriving in Mississippi, three volunteers—Michael Schwerner, James Chaney, and Andrew Goodman—were kidnapped and killed, and, during the rest of the summer, thirty-seven black churches were set on fire and dozens of safe houses were bombed; volunteers were beaten, shot at, arrested, and trailed by pickup trucks full of armed men. A quarter of those in the program dropped out. Activism that challenges the status quo—that attacks deeply rooted problems—is not for the faint of heart.

What makes people capable of this kind of activism? The Stanford sociologist Doug McAdam compared the Freedom Summer dropouts with the participants who stayed, and discovered that the key difference wasn’t, as might be expected, ideological fervor. “All of the applicants—participants and withdrawals alike—emerge as highly committed, articulate supporters of the goals and values of the summer program,” he concluded. What mattered more was an applicant’s degree of personal connection to the civil-rights movement. All the volunteers were required to provide a list of personal contacts—the people they wanted kept apprised of their activities—and participants were far more likely than dropouts to have close friends who were also going to Mississippi. High-risk activism, McAdam concluded, is a “strong-tie” phenomenon.

This pattern shows up again and again. One study of the Red Brigades, the Italian terrorist group of the nineteen-seventies, found that seventy per cent of recruits had at least one good friend already in the organization. The same is true of the men who joined the mujahideen in Afghanistan. Even revolutionary actions that look spontaneous, like the demonstrations in East Germany that led to the fall of the Berlin Wall, are, at core, strong-tie phenomena. The opposition movement in East Germany consisted of several hundred groups, each with roughly a dozen members. Each group was in limited contact with the others: at the time, only thirteen per cent of East Germans even had a phone. All they knew was that on Monday nights, outside St. Nicholas Church in downtown Leipzig, people gathered to voice their anger at the state. And the primary determinant of who showed up was “critical friends”—the more friends you had who were critical of the regime the more likely you were to join the protest.

So one crucial fact about the four freshmen at the Greensboro lunch counter—David Richmond, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair, and Joseph McNeil—was their relationship with one another. McNeil was a roommate of Blair’s in A. & T.’s Scott Hall dormitory. Richmond roomed with McCain one floor up, and Blair, Richmond, and McCain had all gone to Dudley High School. The four would smuggle beer into the dorm and talk late into the night in Blair and McNeil’s room. They would all have remembered the murder of Emmett Till in 1955, the Montgomery bus boycott that same year, and the showdown in Little Rock in 1957. It was McNeil who brought up the idea of a sit-in at Woolworth’s. They’d discussed it for nearly a month. Then McNeil came into the dorm room and asked the others if they were ready. There was a pause, and McCain said, in a way that works only with people who talk late into the night with one another, “Are you guys chicken or not?” Ezell Blair worked up the courage the next day to ask for a cup of coffee because he was flanked by his roommate and two good friends from high school.

The kind of activism associated with social media isn’t like this at all. The platforms of social media are built around weak ties. Twitter is a way of following (or being followed by) people you may never have met. Facebook is a tool for efficiently managing your acquaintances, for keeping up with the people you would not otherwise be able to stay in touch with. That’s why you can have a thousand “friends” on Facebook, as you never could in real life.

This is in many ways a wonderful thing. There is strength in weak ties, as the sociologist Mark Granovetter has observed. Our acquaintances—not our friends—are our greatest source of new ideas and information. The Internet lets us exploit the power of these kinds of distant connections with marvellous efficiency. It’s terrific at the diffusion of innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration, seamlessly matching up buyers and sellers, and the logistical functions of the dating world. But weak ties seldom lead to high-risk activism.

In a new book called “The Dragonfly Effect: Quick, Effective, and Powerful Ways to Use Social Media to Drive Social Change,” the business consultant Andy Smith and the Stanford Business School professor Jennifer Aaker tell the story of Sameer Bhatia, a young Silicon Valley entrepreneur who came down with acute myelogenous leukemia. It’s a perfect illustration of social media’s strengths. Bhatia needed a bone-marrow transplant, but he could not find a match among his relatives and friends. The odds were best with a donor of his ethnicity, and there were few South Asians in the national bone-marrow database. So Bhatia’s business partner sent out an e-mail explaining Bhatia’s plight to more than four hundred of their acquaintances, who forwarded the e-mail to their personal contacts; Facebook pages and YouTube videos were devoted to the Help Sameer campaign. Eventually, nearly twenty-five thousand new people were registered in the bone-marrow database, and Bhatia found a match.

But how did the campaign get so many people to sign up? By not asking too much of them. That’s the only way you can get someone you don’t really know to do something on your behalf. You can get thousands of people to sign up for a donor registry, because doing so is pretty easy. You have to send in a cheek swab and—in the highly unlikely event that your bone marrow is a good match for someone in need—spend a few hours at the hospital. Donating bone marrow isn’t a trivial matter. But it doesn’t involve financial or personal risk; it doesn’t mean spending a summer being chased by armed men in pickup trucks. It doesn’t require that you confront socially entrenched norms and practices. In fact, it’s the kind of commitment that will bring only social acknowledgment and praise.

The evangelists of social media don’t understand this distinction; they seem to believe that a Facebook friend is the same as a real friend and that signing up for a donor registry in Silicon Valley today is activism in the same sense as sitting at a segregated lunch counter in Greensboro in 1960. “Social networks are particularly effective at increasing motivation,” Aaker and Smith write. But that’s not true. Social networks are effective at increasing participation—by lessening the level of motivation that participation requires. The Facebook page of the Save Darfur Coalition has 1,282,339 members, who have donated an average of nine cents apiece. The next biggest Darfur charity on Facebook has 22,073 members, who have donated an average of thirty-five cents. Help Save Darfur has 2,797 members, who have given, on average, fifteen cents. A spokesperson for the Save Darfur Coalition told Newsweek, “We wouldn’t necessarily gauge someone’s value to the advocacy movement based on what they’ve given. This is a powerful mechanism to engage this critical population. They inform their community, attend events, volunteer. It’s not something you can measure by looking at a ledger.” In other words, Facebook activism succeeds not by motivating people to make a real sacrifice but by motivating them to do the things that people do when they are not motivated enough to make a real sacrifice. We are a long way from the lunch counters of Greensboro.

The students who joined the sit-ins across the South during the winter of 1960 described the movement as a “fever.” But the civil-rights movement was more like a military campaign than like a contagion. In the late nineteen-fifties, there had been sixteen sit-ins in various cities throughout the South, fifteen of which were formally organized by civil-rights organizations like the N.A.A.C.P. and CORE. Possible locations for activism were scouted. Plans were drawn up. Movement activists held training sessions and retreats for would-be protesters. The Greensboro Four were a product of this groundwork: all were members of the N.A.A.C.P. Youth Council. They had close ties with the head of the local N.A.A.C.P. chapter. They had been briefed on the earlier wave of sit-ins in Durham, and had been part of a series of movement meetings in activist churches. When the sit-in movement spread from Greensboro throughout the South, it did not spread indiscriminately. It spread to those cities which had preëxisting “movement centers”—a core of dedicated and trained activists ready to turn the “fever” into action.

The civil-rights movement was high-risk activism. It was also, crucially, strategic activism: a challenge to the establishment mounted with precision and discipline. The N.A.A.C.P. was a centralized organization, run from New York according to highly formalized operating procedures. At the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the unquestioned authority. At the center of the movement was the black church, which had, as Aldon D. Morris points out in his superb 1984 study, “The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement,” a carefully demarcated division of labor, with various standing committees and disciplined groups. “Each group was task-oriented and coordinated its activities through authority structures,” Morris writes. “Individuals were held accountable for their assigned duties, and important conflicts were resolved by the minister, who usually exercised ultimate authority over the congregation.”

This is the second crucial distinction between traditional activism and its online variant: social media are not about this kind of hierarchical organization. Facebook and the like are tools for building networks, which are the opposite, in structure and character, of hierarchies. Unlike hierarchies, with their rules and procedures, networks aren’t controlled by a single central authority. Decisions are made through consensus, and the ties that bind people to the group are loose.

This structure makes networks enormously resilient and adaptable in low-risk situations. Wikipedia is a perfect example. It doesn’t have an editor, sitting in New York, who directs and corrects each entry. The effort of putting together each entry is self-organized. If every entry in Wikipedia were to be erased tomorrow, the content would swiftly be restored, because that’s what happens when a network of thousands spontaneously devote their time to a task.

There are many things, though, that networks don’t do well. Car companies sensibly use a network to organize their hundreds of suppliers, but not to design their cars. No one believes that the articulation of a coherent design philosophy is best handled by a sprawling, leaderless organizational system. Because networks don’t have a centralized leadership structure and clear lines of authority, they have real difficulty reaching consensus and setting goals. They can’t think strategically; they are chronically prone to conflict and error. How do you make difficult choices about tactics or strategy or philosophical direction when everyone has an equal say?

The Palestine Liberation Organization originated as a network, and the international-relations scholars Mette Eilstrup-Sangiovanni and Calvert Jones argue in a recent essay in International Security that this is why it ran into such trouble as it grew: “Structural features typical of networks—the absence of central authority, the unchecked autonomy of rival groups, and the inability to arbitrate quarrels through formal mechanisms—made the P.L.O. excessively vulnerable to outside manipulation and internal strife.”

In Germany in the nineteen-seventies, they go on, “the far more unified and successful left-wing terrorists tended to organize hierarchically, with professional management and clear divisions of labor. They were concentrated geographically in universities, where they could establish central leadership, trust, and camaraderie through regular, face-to-face meetings.” They seldom betrayed their comrades in arms during police interrogations. Their counterparts on the right were organized as decentralized networks, and had no such discipline. These groups were regularly infiltrated, and members, once arrested, easily gave up their comrades. Similarly, Al Qaeda was most dangerous when it was a unified hierarchy. Now that it has dissipated into a network, it has proved far less effective.

The drawbacks of networks scarcely matter if the network isn’t interested in systemic change—if it just wants to frighten or humiliate or make a splash—or if it doesn’t need to think strategically. But if you’re taking on a powerful and organized establishment you have to be a hierarchy. The Montgomery bus boycott required the participation of tens of thousands of people who depended on public transit to get to and from work each day. It lasted a year. In order to persuade those people to stay true to the cause, the boycott’s organizers tasked each local black church with maintaining morale, and put together a free alternative private carpool service, with forty-eight dispatchers and forty-two pickup stations. Even the White Citizens Council, King later said, conceded that the carpool system moved with “military precision.” By the time King came to Birmingham, for the climactic showdown with Police Commissioner Eugene (Bull) Connor, he had a budget of a million dollars, and a hundred full-time staff members on the ground, divided into operational units. The operation itself was divided into steadily escalating phases, mapped out in advance. Support was maintained through consecutive mass meetings rotating from church to church around the city.

Boycotts and sit-ins and nonviolent confrontations—which were the weapons of choice for the civil-rights movement—are high-risk strategies. They leave little room for conflict and error. The moment even one protester deviates from the script and responds to provocation, the moral legitimacy of the entire protest is compromised. Enthusiasts for social media would no doubt have us believe that King’s task in Birmingham would have been made infinitely easier had he been able to communicate with his followers through Facebook, and contented himself with tweets from a Birmingham jail. But networks are messy: think of the ceaseless pattern of correction and revision, amendment and debate, that characterizes Wikipedia. If Martin Luther King, Jr., had tried to do a wiki-boycott in Montgomery, he would have been steamrollered by the white power structure. And of what use would a digital communication tool be in a town where ninety-eight per cent of the black community could be reached every Sunday morning at church? The things that King needed in Birmingham—discipline and strategy—were things that online social media cannot provide.

The bible of the social-media movement is Clay Shirky’s “Here Comes Everybody.” Shirky, who teaches at New York University, sets out to demonstrate the organizing power of the Internet, and he begins with the story of Evan, who worked on Wall Street, and his friend Ivanna, after she left her smart phone, an expensive Sidekick, on the back seat of a New York City taxicab. The telephone company transferred the data on Ivanna’s lost phone to a new phone, whereupon she and Evan discovered that the Sidekick was now in the hands of a teen-ager from Queens, who was using it to take photographs of herself and her friends.

When Evan e-mailed the teen-ager, Sasha, asking for the phone back, she replied that his “white ass” didn’t deserve to have it back. Miffed, he set up a Web page with her picture and a description of what had happened. He forwarded the link to his friends, and they forwarded it to their friends. Someone found the MySpace page of Sasha’s boyfriend, and a link to it found its way onto the site. Someone found her address online and took a video of her home while driving by; Evan posted the video on the site. The story was picked up by the news filter Digg. Evan was now up to ten e-mails a minute. He created a bulletin board for his readers to share their stories, but it crashed under the weight of responses. Evan and Ivanna went to the police, but the police filed the report under “lost,” rather than “stolen,” which essentially closed the case. “By this point millions of readers were watching,” Shirky writes, “and dozens of mainstream news outlets had covered the story.” Bowing to the pressure, the N.Y.P.D. reclassified the item as “stolen.” Sasha was arrested, and Evan got his friend’s Sidekick back.

Shirky’s argument is that this is the kind of thing that could never have happened in the pre-Internet age—and he’s right. Evan could never have tracked down Sasha. The story of the Sidekick would never have been publicized. An army of people could never have been assembled to wage this fight. The police wouldn’t have bowed to the pressure of a lone person who had misplaced something as trivial as a cell phone. The story, to Shirky, illustrates “the ease and speed with which a group can be mobilized for the right kind of cause” in the Internet age.

Shirky considers this model of activism an upgrade. But it is simply a form of organizing which favors the weak-tie connections that give us access to information over the strong-tie connections that help us persevere in the face of danger. It shifts our energies from organizations that promote strategic and disciplined activity and toward those which promote resilience and adaptability. It makes it easier for activists to express themselves, and harder for that expression to have any impact. The instruments of social media are well suited to making the existing social order more efficient. They are not a natural enemy of the status quo. If you are of the opinion that all the world needs is a little buffing around the edges, this should not trouble you. But if you think that there are still lunch counters out there that need integrating it ought to give you pause.

Shirky ends the story of the lost Sidekick by asking, portentously, “What happens next?”—no doubt imagining future waves of digital protesters. But he has already answered the question. What happens next is more of the same. A networked, weak-tie world is good at things like helping Wall Streeters get phones back from teen-age girls. Viva la revolución. ♦

*Clarification: This piece’s account of the Greensboro sit-in comes from Miles Wolff’s “Lunch at the Five and Ten” (1970).

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