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Gyan Prakash Subaltern Studies As Post Colonial Criticism Bibliography

I Subaltern studies nascono a Delhi nei primi anni '80, come collettivo di studio intorno alla subalternità. Il loro organo ufficiale è la rivista "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South-Asian History and Society" [di cui riportiamo interamente l'elenco dei saggi contenuti].

Fin dal principio si propongono come gruppo interdisciplinare, anche se la maggior parte dei membri iniziali abbia una formazione storica e il loro progetto sia primariamente quello di scrivere una storia dal basso che decostruisca la narrazione coloniale, reinterpreti le fonti tradizionali e ne interpelli di nuove, nel tentativo problematizzato di dar voce ai soggetti subalterni.

Antonio Gramsci è l'ispiratore del termine chiave e del fuoco d'attenzione della scuola; il concetto di 'subalternità', però, riversato in India, si trasforma e si carica di accezioni estranee alle intenzioni dell'autore italiano. Esso ha comunque la funzione -polemica rispetto all'impiego di certe categorie marxiste classiche- di connotare gli strati bassi o politicamente emarginati della popolazione, prescindendo dal riferimento ad uno sviluppo socio-economico estraneo alla storia dell'India, come nel caso del termine 'proletariato'.

Attualmente i Subaltern studies costituiscono un influente corpo di ricerche in espansione, che ingloba, coinvolge e sfida molteplici discipline e molti nuclei vitali dell'attuale discorso accademico: tra cui i cultural studies, gli studi sul genere, l'orientalismo, i post-colinal studies, ecc. Questo gruppo di ricerca ha, poi, saputo ispirare studi sulla subalternità in molti altri paesi ex-colonizzati, in America latina e in Africa, stabilendo degli interessanti rapporti Sud-Sud.

  • Ranajit Guha (ed.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 1, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1982.

    • Ranajit Guha, On Some Apects of the Historiography of Colonial India
    • Partha Chatterjee, Agrarian Relations and communalism in Bengal, 1926-1935
    • Shahid Amin, Small Peasant commodity Production and Rural Indebtedness: the Culture of Sugarcane in Eastern U.P., c. 1880-1920
    • David Arnold, Rebellious Hillmen: the Gudem-Rampa Risings, 1939-1924
    • Gyan Pandey, Peasant Revolt and Indian Nationalism: The Peasant movement in Awadh, 1919-1922
    • David Hardiman, The Indian 'Faction': A Political Theory Examined
  • Ranajit Guha (ed.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 2, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1983.

    • Ranajit Guha, The Prose of Counter-Insurgency
    • Gautam Bhadra, Two Frontier Uprisings in Mughal India
    • Gyan Pandey, Rallying round the Cow: Sectarian Strife in the Bhojpuri Region, c. 1888-1917
    • Dual Revolt, Quit India in Bihar and the Eastern United Provinces: The Stephen Henningham Arvind N. Das, Agrarian Change from Above and Below: Bihar 1947-78
    • N. K. Chandra, Agricultural Workers in Burdwan
    • Dipesh Chakrabarty, Conditions for Knowledge of Working-Class Conditions: Employers, Government and the Jute Workers of Calcutta, 1890-1940
    • Partha Chatterjee, More on Modes of Power and Peasantry
  • Ranajit Guha (ed.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 3, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1984.

    • Shahid Amin, Gandhi as Mahatma: Gorakhpur District, Eastern UP, 1921-1922
    • David Arnold, Famine in Peasant Consciousness and Peasant Action: Madras, 1876-1878
    • Dipesh Chakrabarty, Trade Unions in a Hierarchical Culture: The Jute Workers of Calcutta, 1920-1950
    • Partha Chatterjee, Gandhi and the Critique of Civil Society
    • David Hardiman, Adivasi Assertion in South Gujarat: The Devi Movement of 1922-1923
    • Gyanendra Pandey, 'Encounters and Calamities': The History of a North Indian Qasba in the Nineteenth Century
    • Sumit Sarkar, The Conditions and Nature of Subaltern Militancy: Bengal from Swadeshi to Non-Co-operation, c.1905-1922
  • Ranajit Guha (ed.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 4, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1985.

    • David Arnold, Bureaucratic Recruitment and Subordination in Colonial India: The Madras Constabulary, 1859-1947
    • Ramachandra Guha, Forestry and Social Protest in British Kumaun, c. 1893-1921
    • Swapan Dasgupta, Adivasi Politics in Midnapur, c. 1760-1924
    • Tanika Sarkar, Jitu Santal's Movement in Malda, 1924-1932: A Study in Tribal Protest
    • David Hardiman, South Gujarat, From Custom to Crime: The Politics of Drinking in Colonial
    • Gautam Bhadra, Four Rebels of Eighteen-Fifty-Seven
    • Bernard S. Cohn, The Command of Language and the Language of Command

    Discussions

    • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Subaltern Studies: Deconstructing Historiography
    • Dipesh Chakrabarty, Invitation to a Dialogue
  • Ranajit Guha (ed.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 5, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1987.

    • David Hardiman, The Bhils and Shahukars of Eastern Gujarat
    • David Arnold, Touching the Body: Perspectives on the Indian Plague, 1896-1900
    • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, A Literary Representation of the Subaltern: Mahasweta Devi's 'Stanadayini'
    • Ranajit Guha, Chandra's Death
    • Shahid Amin, Approver's Testimony, Judicial Discourse: The Case of Chauri Chaura

    Discussions

    • Asok Sen, Subaltern Studies: Capital, Class and Community
    • Ajit K. Chaudhury, In Search of a Subaltern Lenin

    Appendix A

    • Mahsweta Devi, 'Breast-Giver' (translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak)

    Appendix B

    • The Testimony of Shikari, the Approver, in the Court of Sessions Judge H.E. Holmes
  • Ranajit Guha (ed.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 6, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1989.

    • Sumit Sarkar, The Kalki-Avatar of Bikrampur: A Village Scandal in Early Twentieth Century Bengal
    • Gautam Bhadra, The Mentality of Subalternity: Kantanama or Rajdharma
    • Julie Stephens, Feminist Fictions: A Critique of the Category 'Non-Western Woman' in Feminist Writings on India
    • Susie Tharu, Response to Julie Stephens
    • Gyanendra Pandey, The Colonial Construction of 'Communalism': British Writings on Banaras in the Nineteenth Century
    • Partha Chatterjee, Caste and Subaltern Consciousness
    • Ranajit Guha, Dominance Without Hegemony and Its Historiography

    Discussion

    • Veena Das, Subaltern as Perspective
  • Partha Chatterjee and Gyanendra Pandey (eds.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 7, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1993

    • Sudipta Kaviraj, The Imaginary Institution of India
    • Partha Chatterjee, A Religion of Urban Domesticity: Sri Ramakrishna and the Calcutta Middle Class
    • Ranajit Guha, Discipline and Mobilize
    • Saurabh Dube, Myths, Symbols and Community: Satnampanth of Chhattisgarh
    • Amitav Ghosh, The Slave of MS. H.6
    • Terence Ranger, Power, Religion and Community: The Matobo Case

    Discussion

    • Upendra Baxi, 'The State's Emissary: The Place of Law in Subaltern Studies
  • David Arnold and David Hardiman (eds.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 8, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1994

    • Partha Chatterjee, Claims on the Past: The Genealogy of Modern Historiography in Bengal
    • Dipesh Chakrabarty, The Difference-Deferral of a Colonial Modernity: Public Debates on Domesticity in British India
    • David Hardiman, Power in the Forests: The Dangs, 1820-1940
    • David Arnold, The Colonial Prison: Power, Knowledge and Penology in Nineteenth-Century India
    • Gyanendra Pandey, The Prose of Otherness
    • Shahid amin and Gautam Bhadra, Ranajit Guha: A Biographical Sketch
    • A Bibliography of Ranajit Guha's Writings (compiled by Gautam Bhadra)
  • Shahid Amin and Dipesh Chakrabarty (eds.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 9, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1996 [Reviews - B. Bose 1997].

    • Ranajit Guha, The Small Voice of History
    • Ajay Skaria, Writing, Orality and Power in the Dangs, Western India, 1800s-1920s
    • Gyan Prakash, Science between the Lines
    • Kamala Visweswaran, Small Speeches, Subaltern Gender: Nationalist Ideology and Its Historiography
    • Shail Mayaram, Speech, Silence and the Making of Partition Violence in Mewat
    • Kancha Illaih, Productive Labour, Consciousness and History: The Dalitbahujan Alternative
    • Vivek Dhareshwar and R. Srivatsan, 'Rowdy-sheeters': An Essay on Subalternity and Politics
    • Susie Tharu and Tejaswini Niranjana, Problems for a Contemporary Theory of Gender
    • David Lloyd, Outside History: Irish New Histories and the 'Subalternity Effect'
  • Gautam Bhadra, Gyan Prakash, and Susie Tharu (eds.), "Subaltern Studies. Writings on South Asian History and Society", No. 10, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1999 [Reviews - Prathama Banerjee 1999].

    • Sudesh Mishra, Diaspora and the Difficult Art of Dying
    • Kaushik Ghosh, A Market for Aboriginality: Primitivism and Race Classification in the Indentured Labour Market of Colonial India
    • Indrani Chatterjee, Colouring Subalternity: Slaves, Concubines and Social Orphans in Early Colonial India
    • Ishita Banerjee Dube, Taming Traditions: Legalities and Histories in Twentieth-Century Orissa
    • Sundar Kaali, Spatializing History: Subaltern Carnivalizations of Space in Tiruppuvanam, Tamil Nadu
    • Vijay Prashad, Untouchable Freedom: A Critique of the Bourgeois Landlord Indian State
    • Christopher Pinney, Indian Magical Realism: Notes on Popular Visual Culture
    • Rosemary Sayigh, Gendering the 'Nationalist Subject': Palestinian Camp Women's Life Stories
  • Ranajit Guha, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (eds.), [introduction by Edward W. Said], Selected Subaltern Studies, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1988 (parzialmente tradotto in italiano, sotto la cura di Sandro Mezzadra: Ranajit Guha, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Subaltern Studies. Modernità e (post)colonialismo, Ombre Corte, Verona, 2002.)

    • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Subaltern Studies: Deconstructing Historiography

    I. Methodology

    • Ranajit Guha, Preface
    • Ranajit Guha, On Some Aspects of the Historiography of Colonial India
    • Ranajit Guha, The Prose of Counter-Insurgency

    II. From Mughal to British

    • Gyanendra Pandey, Encounters and Calamities
    • Gautam Bhadra, Four Rebels of Eighteen-Fifty-Seven

    III. Domination Analysis in the Pre-Capitalist Context

    • Dipesh Chakrabarty, Conditions for Knowledge of Working-Class Conditions

    IV. Nationalism: Gandhi As Signifier

    • Gyanendra Pandey, Peasant Revolt and Indian Nationalism
    • Shahid Amin, Gandhi as Mahatma

    V. Developing Foucault

    • Partha Chatterjee, More on Modes of Power and the Peasantry
    • David Arnold, Touching the Body: Perspectives on the Indian Plague
  • Guha, Ranajit (ed.), A Subaltern Studies Reader: 1986-1995, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1998.

    • Ranajit Guha, In Defense of the Fragment: Writing about Hindu-Muslim Riots in India Today
    • Gyanendra Pandey
    • Ranajit Guha, Chandra's Death
    • Gautam Bhadra, The Mentality of Subalternity: Kantanama or Rajdharma
    • David Hardiman, Origins and Transformations of the Devi
    • David Arnold, The Colonial Prision: Power, Knowledge, and Penology in Nineteenth-Century India
    • Shahid Amin, Remembering Chauri Chaura: Notes from Historical Fieldwork
    • Partha Chatterjee, The Nation and Its Women
    • Postcoloniality and the Artifice of History
    • Dipesh Chakrabarty, Who Speaks for "Indian" Pasts?
  • Partha Chatterjee and Pradeep Jeganathan (eds.), Community, Gender and Violence, Columbia University Press, New York, 2000 (considerato l'XI volume dei "Subaltern Studies")

    • Aamir R. Mufti, A Greater Story-writer than God: Genre, Gender and Minority in Late Colonial India
    • Pradeep Jeganathan, A Space for Violence: Anthropology, Politics and the Location of a Sinhala Practice of Masculinity
    • Nivedita Menon, Embodying the Self Feminism, Sexual Violence and the Law
    • Flavia Agnes, Women, Marriage, and the Subordination of Rights
    • Tejaswini Niranjana, Nationalism Refigured: Contemporary South Indian Cinema and the Subject of Feminism
    • Satish Deshpande, Hegemonic Spatial Strategies: The Nation-Space and Hindu Communalism in Twentieth-century India
    • Qadri Ismail, Constituting Nation, Contesting Nationalism: The Southern Tamil (Woman) and Separatist Tamil Nationalism in Sri Lanka
    • David Scott, Toleration and Historical Traditions of Difference

    Discussion

    • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, An Afterword on the New Subaltern
  • David Ludden (ed.), Reading Subaltern Studies. Critical History, Contested Meaning and the Globalization of South Asia, Anthem South Asia Studies, London, 2002

    • David Ludden, Introduction: A Brief of Subalternity

    I. Early Critiques in India

    • Jeeved Alam, Pesantry, Politics, and Historiography: Critique of New Trend in Relation to Marxism
    • Sangeeta Singh, Minakshi Menon, Pradeep Kumar Datta, Biswamoy Pati, Radhakanta Barik, Radhika Chopra, Partha Dutta, Sanjay Prasad, Subaltern Studies II: A review Article
    • Ranajit Das Gupta, Significance of Non-subaltern Mediation
    • B.B. Chaudhuri, Subaltern Autonomy and the National Movement

    II. Critical Incorporation in the Global Academy

    • Rosalind O'Hanlon, Recovering the Subject: Subaltern Studies and the Histories of Resistance in Colonial South Asia
    • Jim Masselon, The Dis/apparence of Subalterns: A Reading of a Decade of Subaltern Studies
    • K. Sivaramakrishna, Situating the Subaltern: History and Anthropology in the Subaltern Studies Project
    • Freederick Cooper, Conflict and Connection: Rethinking Colonial African History
    • Henry Schwarz, Subaltern Studies: Radical History in the Methaphoric Mode

    III. Later Critiques in India

    • K. Balagopal, Drought and TADA in Adilabad
    • Vinay Bahl, Relevance (or Irrelevance) of Subaltern Studies
    • Sumit Sarkar, The Decline of the Subalter in Subaltern Studies
    • Mignolo, Walter D., Local Histories/Global Designs Coloniality, Subaltern Knowledges, and Border Thinking, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2000.
  • In the preface to the inaugural issue of Subaltern Studies, published in 1982, Indian historian Ranajit Guha called for more academic work on subaltern themes and critiques of elitism.  Almost 30 years later, his call has been answered in variety of ways.  Moving beyond the focus on South Asia, the Subaltern Studies Collective has influenced the nature of research all over the world and has inspired the formation of similar groups such as the Latin American Subaltern Studies group.  To commemorate Subaltern Studies’ 30th anniversary, this Curated Collection offers 5 articles that provide a glimpse of how Cultural Anthropology has contributed to this school, and how this school has likewise influenced anthropological research.  These articles demonstrate both how subaltern studies is pursued beyond the Indian subcontinent and how it might guide the analysis of representation, identity, power, and modernization.

    Our collection begins with Donald S. Moore’s “Subaltern Struggles and the Politics of Place.”  In discussing the settlement patterns and land rights of Kaerezians in post-colonial Zimbabwe, Moore criticizes how anthropology has fetishized subalternity and resistance.  Essentializing analyses that simplify "the subaltern" as a monolithic and homogenous category limit our understandings of subjects, their actions and their relations with others.  Moore moves beyond such a reductive approach by advocating a more complex understanding of place. He argues against the notion that some actors are "inside" power relations, while others are "outside" and can thereby resist power in relatively straightforward ways. Instead, Moore makes the point that all places are cross-cut by relations of power. Neat inside/outside divisions don't give an adequate view.

    Like Moore, Saba Mahmood doubts Guha’s idea of a subaltern “autonomous domain” outside the forces of domination.  In “Feminist Theory, Embodiment, and the Docile Agent” she questions our conventional notions of agency and resistance.  Drawing on her fieldwork during the Egyptian Islamic revival, Mahmood parochializes our normative assumptions of self to reveal the agency of Muslim women who participate in the revival.  Instead of viewing women’s participation in mosques as evidence of their submission to patriarchal Islam, she presents an alternate reading that highlights how their piety enables self and empowerment that counters versions proposed by Western feminism. 

    Miyako Inoue draws our attention to the role that language and sound played in the formation of Japanese modernity and the construction of its Others. In her essay, “The Listening Subject of Japanese Modernity,” Inoue tracks the late 19th-century emergence of “school-girl speech”: a metapragmatic category that was invented by male Meiji intellectuals and that was used to produce women as modern Japan’s self-consolidating Other. Elite male scholars decried this form of speech, arguing that women who spoke in this way were vulgar. Inoue argues that “school-girl speech” thereby constituted Japanese modernity as masculine while rendering the feminine voice(less) as nonsensical noise. Not unlike Mahmood, Inoue is skeptical of Western notions of individual agency—specifically those that link power and identity to the voice. She points out how, in Meiji Japan, the “voice” was precisely the mechanism that silenced women and produced them as modernity’s Other.

    Peter Benson’s article likewise deals with the production of society’s Others. Benson focuses on the production of the “face” and argues that certain “kinds” of faces index different “kinds” of humans. The face differentiates between humans who are deserving of rights, respect, and livelihoods from those who are not. In his article, “El Campo: Faciality and Structural Violence in Farm Labor Camps,” Benson examines the lived experiences of migrant farm workers in North Carolina. He shows how racialized faces exclude migrants from the dominant Anglo community. Not unlike Inoue’s argument, Benson shows how the face indexes a supposed interior identity which is presumed, by the dominant community, to be vulgar, Other, and somehow deserving of his/her conditions of depravity.

    Charles Hale’s essay “Activist Research v. Cultural Critique,” takes up the question of how academics might struggle alongside subaltern communities with whom they work. He argues that activist researchers should develop methods that are different from what he calls "cultural critique." He suggests that researchers use such methods--for example statistical surverys and GIS technology--in ways that can be leveraged in courtrooms and other settings to help subaltern communities in their struggles against dominant social institutions. He goes on to suggest that researchers should be held accountable both by their academic institutions and by the communities with whom they work. Hale’s essay provokes questions of academic and ethical responsibility as well as the instrumental uses of knowledge and accountability. 

    Finally, we offer interviews with two of the founding members of the original South Asian Subaltern Studies Collective who inspired many conversations in subaltern studies and beyond.  Prof. Gyanendra Pandey, distinguished professor of History at Emory University, and Prof. Partha Chatterjee, professor of Anthropology at Columbia University, reflect upon the early days of the collective, its trajectory, and its influence beyond South Asia and the discipline of History.

    By placing these essays in conversation with the added insights of the authors and Profs. Chatterjee and Pandey, we hope this collection will inspire further conversation on how anthropologists contribute to the proliferation of Subaltern Studies beyond the ideas and motivations of the original collective.

    Multimedia

    Dipesh Chakrabarty

    "In Retrospect: Subaltern Studies and Futures Past," Keynote Address at the conference on Subaltern Studies: Historical World Making Thirty Years on, Aug. 2011, ANU

    Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

    "Situating Feminism," the 2010 Annual Keynote Talk of the Beatrice Bain Research Group, UC Berkeley

    "Trajectory of the Subaltern in My Work," UCSB

    Sumit Sarkar

    "Writing a Marxian Social History of Modern India: Problems and Prospects," July 2010, sponsored by Goldsmiths, University of London and Historical Materialism Journal 

    Relevant Links

    "A Brief History of Subaltern Studies," Introduction by David Ludden for Reading Subaltern Studies

    Latin American Subaltern Studies Group

    Related Readings

    Arnold, David

    1984    "Gramsci and peasant subalternity in India". Journal of Peasant Studies. 11 (4): 155-177.

    Bahl, Vinay

    1997    "Relevance (or Irrelevance) of Subaltern Studies". Economic and Political Weekly. 32 (23): 1333-1344.

    Beverley, John

    1999    Subalternity and representation: arguments in cultural theory. Durham: Duke University Press.

    Bhabha, Homi K

    1994    "The Postcolonial and Postmodern: The Question of Agency." In The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 171-197.

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    1996    "Behind the veil: The many masks of subaltern sexuality". Women's Studies International Forum. 19 (3): 277.

    Chakrabarty, Dipesh

    1993    "Marx after Marxism: A Subaltern Historian's Perspective". Economic and Political Weekly. 28 (22): 1094-1096.

    2002    Habitations of modernity: essays in the wake of subaltern studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Chatterjee, Partha

    1994    "Was There a Hegemonic Project of the Colonial State?" In Contesting Colonial Hegemony: State & Society in Africa and India. Dagmar Engels and Shula Marks, eds. London: British Academic Press, 79-84.

    1995    "History and the Nationalization of Hinduism." In Representing Hinduism, Vasudha Dalmia and H. von Stietencron, eds. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 103-128.

    Chaturvedi, Vinayak

    2000    Mapping subaltern studies and the postcolonial. London: Verso.

    Cooper, Frederick    

    1994    "Conflict and Connection: Rethinking Colonial African History". The American Historical Review. 99 (5): 1516-1545.

    Coronil, Fernando

    2005    "Post-Obituary: We are Dead. Long Live Subaltern Studies in the Americas!" Dispositio. (52): 337.

    Currie, Kate

    1995    "The Challenge to Orientalist, Elitist, and Western Historiography: Notes on the "Subaltern Project" 1982-1989". Dialectical Anthropology. 20 (2): 217.

    Guha, Ranajit

    1984    Writings on South Asian history and society. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

    1997    A Subaltern studies reader, 1986-1995. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Guha, Ranajit, David Arnold, and David Hardiman

    1994    Essays in honour of Ranajit Guha. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

    Guha, Ranajit, Partha Chatterjee, Gyanendra Pandey, David Arnold, David Hardiman, Shahid Amin, Dipesh Chakrabarty, et al.

    1982    Subaltern studies: writings on South Asian history and society. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

    Guha, Ranajit, and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

    1988    Selected Subaltern studies. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Hardiman, David

    1986    "'Subaltern Studies' at Crossroads". Economic and Political Weekly. 21 (7): 288-290.

    Kaviraj, Sudipta

    1994    "On the Construction of Colonial Power: structure, discourse, hegemony." In Contesting Colonial Hegemony: State & Society in Africa and India. Dagmar Engels and Shula Marks, eds. London: British Academic Press, 19-54.

    Lal, Vinay

    2001    "Subaltern Studies and its Critics: Debates over Indian History". History and Theory. 40 (1): 135-148.

    Mallon, Florencia E

    1994    "The Promise and Dilemma of Subaltern Studies: Perspectives from Latin American History". The American Historical Review. 99 (5): 1491-1515.

    Masselos, Jim

    1992    "The dis/appearance of subalterns: A reading of a decade of subaltern studies". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 15 (1): 105-125.

    Mayaram, Shail, M. S. S. Pandian, and Ajay Skaria

    2005    Muslims, Dalits, and the fabrications of history. New Delhi: Permanent Black and Ravi Dayal Publisher.

    Pandey, Gyanendra

    2009    Subaltern citizens and their histories investigations from India and the USA. London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

    1995    "Voices from the Edge: The Struggle to Write Subaltern Histories". Ethnos. 60 (3-4): 223.

    Prakash, Gyan

    1992    "Can the "Subaltern" Ride? A Reply to O'Hanlon and Washbrook". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 34 (1): 168-184.

    Rabasa, José

    2010    Without history: subaltern studies, the Zapatista insurgency, and the specter of history. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

    Rodríguez, Ileana

    2000    "Cross-Genealogies in Latin American and South Asian Subaltern Studies". Nepantla: Views from South. 1 (1): 45-58.

    2001    The Latin American subaltern studies reader. Durham: Duke University Press.

    2005    "Is There a Need for Subaltern Studies?" Dispositio. (52): 43.

    Sarkar, Sumit

    1997    "The Decline of the Subaltern in Subaltern Studies." In Writing Social History. Delhi: Oxford University Press India, 82-108.

    Seed, Patricia

    2005    "How Ranajit Guha came to Latin American Subaltern Studies". Dispositio. (52): 107.

    Sivaramakrishnan, K

    1995    "Situating the Subaltern: History and Anthropology in the Subaltern Studies Project". Journal of Historical Sociology. 8 (4): 395.

    Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty

    1988    "Can the Subaltern Speak?" In Marxism & The Interpretation of Culture. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, eds. London: Macmillan, 271-313.

    Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, and Rosalind C. Morris

    2010    Can the subaltern speak?: reflections on the history of an idea. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Subaltern Studies Conference, Partha Chatterjee, and Pradeep Jeganathan

    2000    Community, gender and violence. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Bibliography

    Subaltern Studies Collection Images, Creative Commons, Courtesy of:

    Paddynapper, "Indigenous Australian Aboriginal Dancers; Training Session-Aboriginal Dreamtime Team." October 24, 2008 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/28990363@N05/2975025069/)

    Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University, “An Asian American and an African American woman wear signs that indicate that they are on strike against Ottenheimer for poor treatment and unfair labor practices, December 1, 1966.” December 1, 1966 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/kheelcenter/5279674056/)

    Janice Waltzer (liberalmind1012), “goat spinners.” 2009 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/pixelpackr/3773436947/)

    freebird, “FREE Dr. Binayak Sen.” May 14, 2009 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/freemind/3531056880/)

    Leonora Enking (Wallygrom), “Zapatista!” 1998 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/33037982@N04/3583213614/)

    Brooke Anderson, “Zapatistas.” June 29, 2007 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/brooke_anderson/774461982/)

    Oisin Prendiville (prendio2), “DSC_2806.” July 25, 2009 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/prendio2/3781792863/)

    Tim Knight (ragdaddy), “Datoga Wife.” September 20, 2006 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/ragdaddy/2027976895/)

    20 Letters, “Zapatista Subcomandante Marcos.” July 27, 2008 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/sbrookss/2715273613/)

    van_j, “the proud daughter of India.” January 1, 2007 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/21870841@N02/2764506729/)

    James Jin (Yoshimai), “Old Woman Selling Wares, Henan, China.” June 24, 2002 via Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamesjin/58684421/)

    Jorge, "School girls in Tokyo." April 19, 2007 via Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:School_girls_in_Tokyo.jpg)

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